## Supported Interest-Rate Instrument Functions

### Bond

A bond is a long-term debt security with a preset interest-rate and maturity. At maturity, you must pay the principal and interest.

The price or value of a bond is determined by discounting the expected cash flows of the bond to the present, using the appropriate discount rate. The following equation represents the relationship of the expected cash flows and discount rate:

$B0=\frac{C}{2}\left[\frac{1-{\left(1+\frac{r}{2}\right)}^{-2t}}{\frac{r}{2}}\right]+\frac{F}{{\left(1+\frac{r}{2}\right)}^{2t}}$

where:

B0 is the bond value.

C is the annual coupon payment.

F is the face value of the bond.

r is the required return on the bond.

t is the number of years remaining until maturity.

Financial Instruments Toolbox™ supports the following for pricing and specifying a bond.

Function

Purpose

`bondbybdt`

Price a bond using a BDT interest-rate tree.

`bondbyhw`

Price a bond using an HW interest-rate tree.

`bondbybk`

Price a bond using a BK interest-rate tree.

`bondbyhjm`

Price a bond using an HJM interest-rate tree.

`bondbycir`

Price bonds using a CIR tree model.

`bondbyzero`

Price a bond using a set of zero curves.

`instbond`

Construct a bond instrument.

### Convertible Bond

A convertible bond is a financial instrument that combines equity and debt features. It is a bond with the embedded option to turn it into a fixed number of shares. The holder of a convertible bond has the right, but not the obligation, to exchange the convertible security for a predetermined number of equity shares at a preset price. The debt component is derived from the coupon payments and the principal. The equity component is provided by the conversion feature.

Convertible bonds have several defining features:

• Coupon — The coupon in convertible bonds are typically lower than coupons in vanilla bonds since investors are willing to take the lower coupon for the opportunity to participate in the company’s stock via the conversion.

• Maturity — Most convertible bonds are issued with long-stated maturities. Short-term maturity convertible bonds usually do not have call or put provisions.

• Conversion ratio — Conversion ratio is the number of shares that the holder of the convertible bond receives from exercising the call option of the convertible bond:

 ```Conversion ratio = par value convertible bond/conversion price of equity```

For example, a conversion ratio of 25 means a bond can be exchanged for 25 shares of stock. This also implies a conversion price of \$40 (1000/25). This, \$40, would be the price at which the owner would buy the shares. This can be expressed as a ratio or as the conversion price and is specified in the contract along with other provisions.

• Option type:

• Callable Convertible: a convertible bond that is callable by the issuer. The issuer of the bond forces conversion, removing the advantage that conversion is at the discretion of the bondholder. Upon call, the bondholder can either convert the bond or redeem at the call price. This option enables the issuer to control the price of the convertible bond and if necessary refinance the debt with a new cheaper one.

• Puttable Convertible: a convertible bond with a put feature that allows the bondholder to sell back the bond at a premium on a specific date. This option protects the holder against rising interest rates by reducing the year to maturity.

Function

Purpose

`cbondbycrr`

Price convertible bonds using a CRR binomial tree with the Tsiveriotis and Fernandes model.

`cbondbyeqp`

Price convertible bonds using an EQP binomial tree with the Tsiveriotis and Fernandes model.

`cbondbyitt`

Price convertible bonds using an implied trinomial tree with the Tsiveriotis and Fernandes model.

`cbondbystt`

Price convertible bonds using a standard trinomial tree with the Tsiveriotis and Fernandes model.

`instcbond`

Construct a `cbond` instrument for a convertible bond.

### Stepped Coupon Bonds

A step-up and step-down bond is a debt security with a predetermined coupon structure over time. With these instruments, coupons increase (step up) or decrease (step down) at specific times during the life of the bond. For more information on options features (call and puts), see Stepped Coupon Bonds with Calls and Puts. The following functions have a modified `CouponRate` argument to support a new variable coupon schedule allowing pricing of stepped coupon bonds.

Function

Purpose

`bondbyzero`

Price bonds using a term structure model.

`bondbybdt`

Price bonds using a BDT tree model.

`bondbyhjm`

Price bonds using an HJM tree model.

`bondbyhw`

Price bonds using an HW tree model.

`bondbybk`

Price bonds using a BK tree model.

`bondbycir`

Price bonds using a CIR tree model.

`instbond`

Construct a bond instrument.

`instoptbnd`

Construct a bond option instrument.

`instdisp`

Display instruments stored in a variable.

### Sinking Fund Bonds

A sinking fund bond is a coupon bond with a sinking fund provision. This provision obligates the issuer to amortize portions of the principal before maturity, affecting bond prices since the time of the principal repayment changes. This means that investors receive the coupon and a portion of the principal paid back over time. These types of bonds reduce credit risk, since it lowers the probability of investors not receiving their principal payment at maturity. For more information on options support for sinking fund bonds, see Sinking Fund Bonds with an Embedded Option. The following functions have a modified `Face` argument to support a variable face schedule for pricing bonds with a sinking provisions.

Function

Purpose

`bondbyzero`

Price bonds using a term structure model.

`bondbybdt`

Price bonds using a BDT tree model.

`bondbyhjm`

Price bonds using an HJM tree model.

`bondbyhw`

Price bonds using an HW tree model.

`bondbybk`

Price bonds using a BK tree model.

`bondbycir`

Price bonds using a CIR tree model.

`instoptbnd`

Construct a bond option instrument.

`instbond`

Construct a bond instrument.

`instdisp`

Display instruments stored in a variable.

### Bonds with an Amortization Schedule

A bond with an amortization schedule repays part of the principal (face value) along with the coupon payments. An amortizing bond is a special case of a sinking fund bond when there is no market purchase option and no call provision. The following functions have a modified `Face` argument to support an amortization schedule.

Function

Purpose

`bondbyzero`

Price bonds using a term structure model.

`bondbybdt`

Price bonds using a BDT tree model.

`bondbyhjm`

Price bonds using an HJM tree model.

`bondbyhw`

Price bonds using an HW tree model.

`bondbybk`

Price bonds using a BK tree model.

`bondbycir`

Price bonds using a CIR tree model.

### Bond Options

Financial Instruments Toolbox supports three types of put and call options on bonds:

• American option: An option that you exercise any time until its expiration date.

• European option: An option that you exercise only on its expiration date.

• Bermuda option: A Bermuda option resembles a hybrid of American and European options. You can exercise it on predetermined dates only, usually monthly.

Financial Instruments Toolbox supports the following for pricing and specifying a bond option.

Function

Purpose

`optbndbybdt`

Price a bond option price using a BDT interest-rate tree.

`optbndbyhw`

Price a bond option price using an HW interest-rate tree.

`optbndbybk`

Price a bond option price using a BK interest-rate tree.

`optbndbyhjm`

Price a bond option price using an HJM interest-rate tree.

`optbndbycir`

Price a bond option price using a CIR interest-rate tree.

`instoptbnd`

Construct a bond option instrument.

### Bond with Embedded Options

A bond with embedded options allows the issuer to buy back (callable) or redeem (puttable) the bond at a predetermined price at specified future dates. Financial Instruments Toolbox supports American, European, and Bermuda callable and puttable bonds.

The pricing for a bond with embedded options is as follows:

• For a callable bond:$PriceCallableBond=BondPrice-BondCallOption$

In the callable case, the holder bought a bond and sold a call option to the issuer. For example, if interest rates go down by the time of the call date, the issuer is able to refinance its debt at a cheaper level and can call the bond.

• For a puttable bond: $PricePuttableBond=PriceBond+PricePutOption$

In the puttable case, the holder bought a bond and a put option. For example, if interest rates rise, the future value of coupon payments becomes less valuable. Therefore, the investor can sell the bond back to the issuer and then lend proceeds elsewhere at a higher rate.

In addition, Option Adjusted Spread (OAS) is a useful way to value and compare securities with embedded options, like callable or puttable bonds. For more information on OAS, see OAS for Callable and Puttable Bonds.

Financial Instruments Toolbox supports the following for pricing and specifying a bond with embedded options.

Function

Purpose

`optembndbybdt`

Price a bond with embedded options using a BDT interest-rate tree.

`optembndbyhw`

Price a bond with embedded options using an HW interest rate tree.

`optembndbybk`

Price a bond with embedded options using a BK interest-rate tree.

`optembndbyhjm`

Price a bond with embedded options using an HJM interest-rate tree.

`optembndbycir`

Price a bond with embedded options using a CIR interest-rate tree.

`instoptembnd`

Construct a bond-with-embedded-options instrument.

`oasbybdt`

`oasbybk`

`oasbyhjm`

`oasbyhw`

`oasbycir`

`agencyoas`

Compute the OAS of the callable bond using the Agency OAS model.

`agencyprice`

Price the callable bond OAS using the Agency OAS model.

### Stepped Coupon Bonds with Calls and Puts

A step-up and step-down bond is a debt security with a predetermined coupon structure over time. For more information on stepped coupon bonds, see Stepped Coupon Bonds. Stepped coupon bonds can have options features (call and puts). The following functions have a modified `CouponRate` argument to support a new variable coupon schedule allowing pricing stepped coupon bonds with callable and puttable features:

Function

Purpose

`optembndbybdt`

Price bonds with embedded options using a BDT model tree.

`optembndbyhjm`

Price bonds with embedded options using an HJM model tree.

`optembndbybk`

Price bonds with embedded options using a BK model tree.

`optembndbyhw`

Price bonds with embedded options using an HW model tree.

`optembndbycir`

Price bonds with embedded options using a CIR model tree.

`instbond`

Construct a bond instrument.

`instoptbnd`

Construct a bond option instrument.

`instoptembnd`

Construct a bond with an embedded option instrument.

`instdisp`

Display instruments stored in a variable.

### Sinking Fund Bonds with an Embedded Option

A sinking fund bond is a coupon bond with a sinking fund provision. For more information on sinking fund bonds, see Sinking Fund Bonds. The sinking fund bond can have a sinking fund option provision allowing the issuer to retire the sinking fund obligation either by purchasing the bonds to be redeemed from the market or by calling the bond via a sinking fund call, whichever is cheaper.

If interest rates are high, then the issuer buys back the required amount of bonds from the market since bonds are cheap. But if interest rates are low (bond prices are high), then most likely the issuer buys the bonds at the call price. Unlike a call feature, however, if a bond has a sinking fund option provision, it is an obligation, not an option, for the issuer to buy back the increments of the issue as stated. Because of this, a sinking fund bond trades at a lower price than a nonsinking fund bond. The following functions have a modified `Face` argument to support a variable face schedule for pricing bonds with a sinking fund option provision.

Function

Purpose

`optembndbybdt`

Price bonds with embedded options using a BDT model tree.

`optembndbyhjm`

Price bonds with embedded options using an HJM model tree.

`optembndbybk`

Price bonds with embedded options using a BK model tree.

`optembndbyhw`

Price bonds with embedded options using an HW model tree.

`optembndbycir`

Price bonds with embedded options using a CIR model tree.

`instbond`

Construct a bond instrument.

`instoptbnd`

Construct a bond option instrument.

`instdisp`

Display instruments stored in a variable.

### Amortizing Callable or Puttable Bond

Amortizing callable or puttable bonds work under a scheduled `Face` input argument. An amortizing callable bond give the issuer the right to call back the bond, but instead of paying the `Face` amount at maturity, it repays part of the principal along with the coupon payments. An amortizing puttable bond, repays part of the principal along with the coupon payments and gives the bondholder the right to sell the bond back to the issuer.

Function

Purpose

`optembndbybdt`

Price bonds with embedded options using a BDT model tree.

`optembndbyhjm`

Price bonds with embedded options using an HJM model tree.

`optembndbybk`

Price bonds with embedded options using a BK model tree.

`optembndbyhw`

Price bonds with embedded options using an HW model tree.

`optembndbycir`

Price bonds with embedded options using a CIR model tree.

`oasbybdt`

`oasbybk`

`oasbyhjm`

`oasbyhw`

`oasbycir`

### Fixed-Rate Note

A fixed-rate note is a long-term debt security with a preset interest rate and maturity, by which the interest must be paid. The principal may or may not be paid at maturity. In Financial Instruments Toolbox, the principal is always paid at maturity.

Function

Purpose

`fixedbybdt`

Price a fixed-rate note using a BDT interest-rate tree.

`fixedbyhw`

Price a fixed-rate note using an HW interest-rate tree.

`fixedbybk`

Price a fixed-rate note using a BK interest-rate tree.

`fixedbyhjm`

Price a fixed-rate note using an HJM interest-rate tree.

`fixedbycir`

Price a fixed-rate note using a CIR interest-rate tree.

`fixedbyzero`

Price a fixed-rate note using a set of zero curves.

`instfixed`

Construct a fixed-rate instrument.

### Floating-Rate Note

A floating-rate note is a security like a bond, but the interest rate of the note is reset periodically, relative to a reference index rate, to reflect fluctuations in market interest rates.

Function

Purpose

`floatbybdt`

Price a floating-rate note using a BDT interest-rate tree.

`floatbyhw`

Price a floating-rate note using an HW interest-rate tree.

`floatbybk`

Price a floating-rate note using a BK interest-rate tree.

`floatbyhjm`

Price a floating-rate note using an HJM interest-rate tree.

`floatbycir`

Price a floating-rate note using a CIR interest-rate tree.

`floatbyzero`

Price a floating-rate note using a set of zero curves.

`instfloat`

Construct a floating-rate note instrument.

### Floating-Rate Note with an Amortization Schedule

A floating-rate note with an amortization schedule repays part of the principal (face value) along with the coupon payments. The following functions have a `Principal` argument to support an amortization schedule.

Function

Purpose

`floatbyzero`

Price floating-rate note from set of zero curves.

`floatbybdt`

Price floating-rate note from Black-Derman-Toy interest-rate tree.

`floatbyhjm`

Price floating-rate note from Heath-Jarrow-Morton interest-rate tree.

`floatbyhw`

Price floating-rate note from Hull-White interest-rate tree.

`floatbybk`

Price floating-rate note from Black-Karasinski interest-rate tree.

`floatbycir`

Price a floating-rate note using a CIR interest-rate tree.

### Floating-Rate Note with Caps, Collars, and Floors

A floating-rate note with caps, collars, and floors. This type of instrument can carry restrictions on the maximum (cap) or minimum (floor) coupon rate paid. A cap is an unattractive feature for an investor, since they constrain the coupon rates from increasing. A floor is an attractive feature, since it allows investors to get a minimum coupon rate when market rates decrease below a certain level. Also, a floating-rate note can have a collar which is a combination of a cap and a floor together. The following functions have a `CapRate` and `FloorRate` argument to support a capped, collared, or floored floating-rate note.

Function

Purpose

`floatbybdt`

Price a capped floating-rate note from a Black-Derman-Toy interest-rate tree.

`floatbyhjm`

Price a capped floating-rate note from a Heath-Jarrow-Morton interest-rate tree.

`floatbyhw`

Price a capped floating-rate note from a Hull-White interest-rate tree.

`floatbybk`

Price a capped floating-rate note from a Black-Karasinski interest-rate tree.

`floatbycir`

Price a floating-rate note using a CIR interest-rate tree.

`instfloat`

Create a capped floating-rate note instrument.

`instadd`

Add a capped floating-rate note instrument to a portfolio.

### Floating-Rate Note Options

Financial Instruments Toolbox supports three types of put and call options on floating-rate notes:

• American option — An option that you exercise any time until its expiration date.

• European option — An option that you exercise only on its expiration date.

• Bermuda option — A Bermuda option resembles a hybrid of American and European options; you can only exercise it on predetermined dates, usually monthly.

Financial Instruments Toolbox supports the following for pricing and specifying a floating-rate note option:

Function

Purpose

`optfloatbybdt`

Price an option for floating-rate note using a Black-Derman-Toy interest-rate tree.

`optfloatbyhjm`

Price an option for floating-rate note using a Heath-Jarrow-Morton interest-rate tree.

`optfloatbyhw`

Price an option for floating-rate note using a Hull-White interest-rate tree.

`optfloatbycir`

Price an option for floating-rate note using a Cox-Ingersoll-Ross interest-rate tree.

`optfloatbybk`

Price an option for floating-rate note using a Black-Karasinski interest-rate tree.

`instoptfloat`

Define the option instrument for floating-rate note.

### Floating-Rate Note with Embedded Options

A floating-rate note with an embedded option enables floating-rate notes to have early redemption features. An FRN with an embedded option gives investors or issuers the option to retire the outstanding principal prior to maturity. An embedded call option gives the right to retire the note prior to the maturity date (callable floater), and an embedded put option gives the right to sell the note back at a specific price (puttable floater).

Financial Instruments Toolbox supports the following for pricing and specifying a floating-rate note with an embedded option:

Function

Purpose

`optemfloatbybdt`

Price an embedded option for floating-rate note using a Black-Derman-Toy interest-rate tree.

`optemfloatbybk`

Price an embedded option for floating-rate note using a Black-Karasinski interest-rate tree.

`optemfloatbyhjm`

Price an embedded option for floating-rate note using a Heath-Jarrow-Morton interest-rate tree.

`optemfloatbyhw`

Price an embedded option for floating-rate note using a Hull-White interest-rate tree.

`optemfloatbycir`

Price an embedded option for floating-rate note using a Cox-Ingersoll-Ross interest-rate tree.

`instoptemfloat`

Define the floating-rate note with embedded option instrument.

### Cap

A cap is a contract that includes a guarantee that sets the maximum interest rate to be paid by the holder, based on an otherwise floating interest rate. The payoff for a cap is:

$\mathrm{max}\left(CurrentRate-CapRate,0\right)$

Function

Purpose

`capbybdt`

Price a cap instrument using a BDT interest-rate tree.

`capbyhw`

Price a cap instrument using an HW interest-rate tree.

`capbybk`

Price a cap instrument using a BK interest-rate tree.

`capbyhjm`

Price a cap instrument using an HJM interest-rate tree.

`capbycir`

Price a cap instrument using a CIR interest-rate tree.

`capbyblk`

Price a cap instrument using the Black option pricing model.

`capbylg2f`

Price a cap using Linear Gaussian two-factor model.

`capbynormal`

Price a cap instrument with negative rates using the Normal (Bachelier) option pricing model.

`capvolstrip`

Strip caplet volatilities from flat cap volatilities.

`instcap`

Construct a cap instrument.

### Floor

A floor is a contract that includes a guarantee setting the minimum interest rate to be received by the holder, based on an otherwise floating interest rate. The payoff for a floor is:

$\mathrm{max}\left(FloorRate-CurrentRate,0\right)$

Function

Purpose

`floorbybdt`

Price a floor instrument using a BDT interest-rate tree.

`floorbyhw`

Price a floor instrument using an HW interest-rate tree.

`floorbybk`

Price a floor instrument using a BK interest-rate tree.

`floorbyhjm`

Price a floor instrument using an HJM interest-rate tree.

`floorbycir`

Price a floor instrument using a CIR interest-rate tree.

`floorbyblk`

Price a floor instrument using the Black option pricing model.

`floorbylg2f`

Price a floor using Linear Gaussian two-factor model.

`floorbynormal`

Price a floor instrument with negative rates using the Normal (Bachelier) option pricing model.

`floorvolstrip`

Strip floorlet volatilities from flat floor volatilities.

`instfloor`

Construct a floor instrument.

### Range Note

A range note is a structured (market-linked) security whose coupon-rate is equal to the reference rate as long as the reference rate is within a certain range. If the reference rate is outside of the range, the coupon-rate is 0 for that period. This type of instrument entitles the holder to cash flows that depend on the level of some reference interest-rate that is floored to be positive and gives the holder of the note direct exposure to the reference rate. This type of instrument is useful for cases where you believe that interest rates will stay within a certain range. In return for the drawback that no interest is paid for the time the range is left, a range note offers higher coupon rates than comparable standard products, like vanilla floating notes.

Function

Purpose

`instrangefloat`

Create a range note instrument.

`rangefloatbybdt`

Price range floating note using a BDT tree.

`rangefloatbybk`

Price range floating note using a BK tree.

`rangefloatbyhjm`

Price range floating note using an HJM tree.

`rangefloatbyhw`

Price range floating note using an HW tree.

`rangefloatbycir`

Price range floating note using a CIR tree.

### Swap

A swap is contract between two parties obligating the parties to exchange future cash flows. A vanilla swap is composed of a floating-rate leg and a fixed-rate leg.

Function

Purpose

`swapbybdt`

Price a swap instrument using a BDT interest-rate tree.

`swapbyhw`

Price a swap instrument using an HW interest-rate tree.

`swapbybk`

Price a swap instrument using a BK interest-rate tree.

`swapbyhjm`

Price a swap instrument using an HJM interest-rate tree.

`swapbycir`

Price a swap instrument using a CIR interest-rate tree.

`swapbyzero`

Price a swap instrument using a set of zero curves and price cross currency swaps.

`instswap`

Construct a swap instrument.

### Swap with an Amortization Schedule

A swap with an amortization schedule repays part of the principal (face value) along with the coupon payments. A swap with an amortization schedule is used to manage interest rate risk and serve as a cash flow management tool. For this particular type of swap, the notional amount decreases over time. This means that interest payments decrease not only on the floating leg but also on the fixed leg. The following swap functions have a `Principal` argument to support an amortization schedule.

Function

Purpose

`swapbyzero`

Price swap instrument from set of zero curves.

`swapbybdt`

Price swap instrument from Black-Derman-Toy interest-rate tree.

`swapbyhjm`

Price swap instrument from Heath-Jarrow-Morton interest-rate tree.

`swapbyhw`

Price swap instrument from Hull-White interest-rate tree.

`swapbybk`

Price swap instrument from Black-Karasinski interest-rate tree.

`swapbycir`

Price a swap instrument using a CIR interest-rate tree.

`instswap`

Construct swap instrument.

### Forward Swap

In a forward interest-rate swap, a fixed interest-rate loan is exchanged for a floating interest-rate loan at a future specified date. The following functions have a `StartDate` argument to support the future date for the forward swap.

Function

Purpose

`swapbyzero`

Price a forward swap from a zero curve.

`swapbybdt`

Price a forward swap from a Black-Derman-Toy interest-rate tree.

`swapbyhjm`

Price a forward swap from a Heath-Jarrow-Morton interest-rate tree.

`swapbyhw`

Price a forward swap from a Hull-White interest-rate tree.

`swapbybk`

Price a forward swap from a Black-Karasinski interest-rate tree.

`swapbycir`

Price a swap instrument using a CIR interest-rate tree.

`instswap`

Create a forward swap instrument.

`instadd`

Add a capped floating-rate note instrument to a portfolio.

### Swaption

A swaption is an option to enter into an interest-rate swap contract. A call swaption allows the option buyer to enter into an interest-rate swap where the buyer of the option pays the fixed-rate and receives the floating-rate. A put swaption allows the option buyer to enter into an interest-rate swap where the buyer of the option receives the fixed-rate and pays the floating-rate.

Function

Purpose

`swaptionbybdt`

Price a swaption instrument using a BDT interest-rate tree.

`swaptionbyhw`

Price a swaption instrument using an HW interest-rate tree.

`swaptionbybk`

Price a swaption instrument using a BK interest-rate tree.

`swaptionbyhjm`

Price a swaption instrument using an HJM interest-rate tree.

`swaptionbycir`

Price a swaption instrument using a CIR interest-rate tree.

`swaptionbyblk`

Price swaptions using the Black model with a forward on a swap.

`swaptionbylg2f`

Price European swaptions using Linear Gaussian two-factor model.

`swaptionbynormal`

Price swaptions for negative rates using the Normal (Bachelier) model with a forward on a swap.

`instswaption`

Construct a swaption instrument.

Use `swaptionbyblk` to price a swaption using the Black model. The Black model is standard model used in the swaption market when pricing European swaptions. This type of model is widely used by when speed is important to quickly obtain a price at settlement date, even if the price is less accurate than other swaption pricing models based on interest-rate tree models.

### Bond Futures

Bond futures are futures contracts where the commodity for delivery is a government bond. There are established global markets for government bond futures. Bond futures provide a liquid alternative for managing interest-rate risk.

In the US market, the Chicago Mercantile Exchange (CME) offers futures on Treasury bonds and notes with maturities of 2, 5, 10, and 30 years. Typically, the following bond future contracts from the CME have maturities of 3, 6, 9, and 12 months:

The short position in a Treasury bond or note future contract must deliver to the long position in one of many possible existing Treasury bonds. For example, in a 30-year Treasury bond future, the short position must deliver a Treasury bond with at least 15 years to maturity. Because these bonds have different values, the bond future contract is standardized by computing a conversion factor. The conversion factor normalizes the price of a bond to a theoretical bond with a coupon of 6%. The price of a bond future contract is represented as:

$InvoicePrice=FutPrice×CF+AI$

where:

FutPrice is the price of the bond future.

CF is the conversion factor for a bond to deliver in a futures contract.

AI is the accrued interest.

The short position in a futures contract has the option of which bond to deliver and, in the US bond market, when in the delivery month to deliver the bond. The short position typically chooses to deliver the bond known as the Cheapest to Deliver (CTD). The CTD bond most often delivers on the last delivery day of the month.

Financial Instruments Toolbox supports the following bond futures:

• US Treasury bonds and notes

• German Bobl, Bund, Buxl, and Schatz

• UK gilts

• Japanese government bonds (JGBs)

The functions supporting all bond futures are:

Function

Purpose

`convfactor`

Calculates bond conversion factors for US Treasury bonds, German Bobl, Bund, Buxl, and Schatz, UK gilts, and JGBs.

`bndfutprice`

Prices bond future given repo rates.

`bndfutimprepo`

Calculates implied repo rates for a bond future given price.

The functions supporting US Treasury bond futures are:

Function

Purpose

`tfutbyprice`

Calculates future prices of Treasury bonds given the spot price.

`tfutbyyield`

Calculates future prices of Treasury bonds given current yield.

`tfutimprepo`

Calculates implied repo rates for the Treasury bond future given price.

`tfutpricebyrepo`

Calculates Treasury bond futures price given the implied repo rates.

`tfutyieldbyrepo`

Calculates Treasury bond futures yield given the implied repo rates.