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Surface RCS as a function of range and Doppler

Since R2022b



    rcs = clutterSurfaceRangeDopplerRCS(nrcs,rbins,freq,dopres,alt,speed,dive) returns the radar cross-section rcs of a surface illuminated by monostatic radar, where

    • nrcs – normalized radar cross-section

    • rbins – range bin centers

    • freq – radar frequency

    • alt – radar altitude

    • dopres – Doppler resolution

    • speed – radar speed

    • dive – radar dive angle

    are the input arguments.

    rcs = clutterSurfaceRangeDopplerRCS(___,PropagationSpeed=c) also specifies the signal propagation speed c.

    rcs = clutterSurfaceRangeDopplerRCS(___,NumDopplerBins=ndop) also specifies the number of Doppler bins, ndop. Using this parameter enables Doppler wrapping and makes the clutter output DC-centered.

    rcs = clutterSurfaceRangeDopplerRCS(___,NumIntegrationPoints=nri) also specifies the number of points per range bin nri used for numerical integration of the reflectivity.


    [rcs,dopbins] = clutterSurfaceRangeDopplerRCS(___) also returns the Doppler-shift bin values dopbins. Units are in Hz.


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    Calculate clutter RCS in a set of range-Doppler cells. The range swath begins at 3000 m and extends to 5000 m with a 50 m range bin width. The radar center frequency is 30 GHz and with a Doppler resolution of 100 Hz. The radar travels at an altitude of 1000 m and with a speed of 100 m/s with a10 dive angle.

    rngbins= 3000:50:5000;
    freq = 30e9;
    doplrres = 100;
    rdralt = 1000;
    rdrspeed = 100;
    dive = 10;

    Use a constant-gamma flatland reflectivity model to get the normalized radar cross-section at each range bin. Then compute the grazing angle using the grazingang function. Compute the normalized surface reflectivity.

    gamma = surfacegamma('Flatland');
    refl = surfaceReflectivityLand( ...
    graze = grazingang(rdralt,rngbins,'Model','Flat');
    nrcs = refl(graze,freq);

    Calculate and display the radar cross-section of the clutter.

    [rcs,dop] = clutterSurfaceRangeDopplerRCS( ...
        nrcs,rngbins,freq,doplrres,rdralt, ...
    rcs(rcs < 10^-2) = 10^-2;
    title('Radar Cross Section (dBsm)')
    xlabel('Doppler (kHz)')
    ylabel('Range (m)')

    Input Arguments

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    Normalized radar cross section of the surface, specified as a length-N nonnegative vector. Each entry in nrcs corresponds to a range specified in rbins. Units are dimensionless but often expressed as m²/m².

    Data Types: double

    Range bin centers, specified as a real-valued length-N vector. Elements of rbins must appear in increasing order and must have at least two elements. The total range swath starts below the first element of rbins and extends beyond the last element of rbins by half the range bin width. The starting and ending ranges are extrapolated from the first and last bins. Range bins need not be uniformly spaced. No range wrapping due to ambiguous range is performed. Units are in meters.

    Example: [20 25 30 35]

    Data Types: double

    Radar frequency, specified as a positive scalar. Units are in Hz.

    Data Types: double

    Doppler resolution, specified as a positive scalar. By default, no wrapping is performed in Doppler space. Doppler bins will cover the full Doppler spectrum of clutter at the specified resolution. Units are in Hz.

    Example: 50

    Data Types: double

    Radar altitude, specified as a non-negative scalar. Units are in meters.

    Data Types: double

    Radar speed, specified as a non-negative scalar. Units are in meters/sec.

    Example: 50

    Data Types: double

    Radar dive angle, specified as a scalar between –90° and 90°. The dive angle is the angle that the radar velocity vector makes with the horizontal plane. A positive dive angle indicates that the velocity vector is pointing down. Units are in degrees.

    Data Types: double

    Number of dc-centered Doppler bins, specified as a positive integer. Specifying this parameter enables Doppler wrapping. Use this argument with the NumDopplerBins name-value pair.

    Example: NumDopplerBins=128

    Data Types: double

    Signal propagation speed, specified as a positive scalar. Use this argument with the PropagationSpeed name-value pair. The default propagation speed is the value obtained from physconst('LightSpeed'). Units are in meters/second.

    Example: PropagationSpeed=3e8

    Data Types: double

    Number of integration points per range bin, specified as a positive integer. Use this argument with the NumIntegrationPoints name-value pair.

    Example: NumIntegrationPoints=100

    Data Types: double

    Output Arguments

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    Radar cross section, returned as an complex-valued N-by-M matrix where RCS(i,j) gives the RCS of surface clutter in the range-Doppler cell at the ith range and jth Doppler bin. Units are in m².

    Doppler bins, returned as length-M vector. By default, the Doppler bins extend over the entire Doppler spectrum of clutter at the resolution specified by dopres.

    Extended Capabilities

    C/C++ Code Generation
    Generate C and C++ code using MATLAB® Coder™.

    Version History

    Introduced in R2022b