MATLAB Answers

# PARFOR Transparency violation error

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IIT Pan 2019 年 6 月 17 日
コメント済み: Andrea Picciau 2019 年 9 月 20 日
Why am I getting the transperancy error for the following code?
Error using syms (line 216)
Transparency violation error.
See Parallel Computing Toolbox documentation about Transparency
clc
clear
alpha =4; % Path loss exponent
del = 2/alpha;
R =1;
N = 4;
p_k = [0.15 0.05 0.45 0.35];
epsi = 1;
N_set = 1:N;
lambda_dash = 0.05:0.05:0.5;
spec_eff1 = zeros(length(lambda_dash),N);
parfor vv = 1:length(lambda_dash)
vv
comm_term = lambda_dash(vv)*pi*(epsi+R^alpha).*gamma(1+del)*gamma(1-del);
syms tt
fun_int1 = zeros(1,N);
for k = 1:N
term = 0;
for ii = 1:N
m =max(ii-N+k,0):1:min(k,ii);
p_intf = (factorial(k)./(factorial(m).*factorial(k-m))).*(factorial(N-k)./(factorial(ii-m).*factorial(N-k-ii+m)))./(factorial(N)./(factorial(ii).*factorial(N-ii)));
term =term + (sum(p_k(ii).*p_intf.*((2^(tt)-1).*m./k).*((epsi+R^alpha).*(2^(tt)-1).*(m./k) + epsi).^(del-1)));
end
f = exp(-comm_term.*term);
fun_int1(k) = vpa(int(f,[0 inf]));
end
spec_eff1(vv,:) = fun_int1;
end
spec_eff = sum(p_k.*spec_eff1,2);
semilogy(lambda_dash,spec_eff,'k-')
hold on
grid on

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### 採用された回答

Andrea Picciau 2019 年 6 月 18 日
The problem occurs in this line:
syms tt
Although the syms function is very handy for hacking symbolic math on your client machine, it modifies the global state of the workspace in a way that is not suitable for parallel computations (and parfor in particular). For parallel computations, use the sym object constructor and change that line to:
tt = sym('tt');
In general, with parfor it's better to use functions that construct and return objects (like the function sym), which are transparent in most cases.

#### 2 件のコメント

saddam alqasimi 2019 年 9 月 20 日
hello Mr Andrea Picciau,
I'm working on parfor, I'm getting the same error which I think due to a similar mistake.
would you mind taking a look, please
%% CEDAS parameters
radius = 0.1; %0.005; % CEDAS microC radius
decay = 100; % Number of data samples to consider 'recent data'
fade = 1/decay;
minThreshold = 4; % Min microC threshold
mergeTimeInterval = 150; %150
minimumNumberOfLinks = 25;
gridGranularity =0.01 ; %1
plotSpeed = inf;
datalogSpeed =1;
vali = 0;
parfor n= 1:2
%% Initialization
clustersRelations = struct('relation',[],'connectedCMCs',[],'timer',[]);
numberOfClusters = 0;
temp = dataset1(:,1:end-1);
d=size(temp,1);
maxVal = ceil(max(temp(:)));
minVal = floor(min(temp(:)));
if minVal <0
gridDimensions = repmat(ceil(maxVal-minVal/gridGranularity),size(dataset1,2)-1,1);
else
gridDimensions = repmat(ceil(maxVal/gridGranularity),size(dataset1,2)-1,1);
end
cmcs = struct('centre',[],'cluster',[],'edge',[],'gridCoordinates',[],'count',[],'life',[],...
'pointsIndices',[]);
outliers = struct('centre',[],'cluster',[],'edge',[],'gridCoordinates',[],'count',[],'life',[],...
'pointsIndices',[]);
if (n==1)
for counter=0:size(dataset1,1)/sampleSpeed
time= mod(counter,3006)+1; % just because time= time+1 not acceptable
for i = 1:sampleSpeed
c1= counter*sampleSpeed+i;
if c1<size(dataset1,1)
dataPoint = dataset1(c1,end-1);
[cmcs,outliers,clustersRelations,numberOfClusters] = Assign(cmcs,outliers,dataPoint,radius,c1,...
gridGranularity,gridDimensions,minThreshold,numberOfClusters,clustersRelations,mergeTimeInterval);
end
end
[cmcs,outliers,clustersRelations,numberOfClusters] = Kill(cmcs,outliers,fade,clustersRelations,numberOfClusters);
[cmcs,clustersRelations,numberOfClusters] = UpdateClustersRelationTable(cmcs,clustersRelations,...
minimumNumberOfLinks,numberOfClusters);
if mod(time,datalogSpeed)==0
%dataLogged(time/datalogSpeed).graph = clustersGraph;
dataLogged(time/datalogSpeed).cmcs = cmcs;
dataLogged(time/datalogSpeed).outliers = outliers;
[targets,outputs,inds,oinds] = ExtractPointOutputsTargets(dataLogged,time/datalogSpeed,dataset);
ind = [1:size(dataset1,1)]';
ninds = setdiff(ind,[inds;oinds]);
dataLogged(time/datalogSpeed).targets = targets;
dataLogged(time/datalogSpeed).outputs = outputs;
dataLogged(time/datalogSpeed).inds = inds;
dataLogged(time/datalogSpeed).oinds = oinds; % outliers cmcs
end
end
else
%another code
end
end
Andrea Picciau 2019 年 9 月 20 日
Hi Saddam,
I can't see any usage of syms in your code.
Take a look at your error. It should be something like this:
Error using XXXXX (line NNN)
Transparency violation error.
it should give you a starting point to debug your code. Read this to see how to do it!

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### その他の回答 (1 件)

gonzalo Mier 2019 年 6 月 17 日
Parfor loop don't work in GPU, it just multithread your CPU code, so you have to be careful with the variables you use because all of them can change the values of the variables that are accessed by other threads, so the behavior is not predefined. For that, matlab create this error if more than one thread can access to the same memory space. I recommend to use cells for each variable so you don't have any problems with the threats. Also, defining a symbolic variable inside the parfor is a bad idea for the same reason.

#### 3 件のコメント

Andrea Picciau 2019 年 6 月 18 日
Hi Gonzalo,
I would like to clarify two points in your answer. Let me know if this helps you!
parfor and GPUs
parfor and gpuArrays can actually be used together (see this answer) and that allows you to use multiple GPUs.
In a nutshell, parfor works by starting a number communicating MATLAB instances called workers inside a common environment called parallel pool (you can find more details about how parallel pools work on this doc page). Each worker is automatically associated with a GPU when it starts.
If you want to parallelize MATLAB code on a single GPU, you can do one of (or a combination of) these things:
• convert your data to gpuArrays at the beginning of your code, and take advantage of the fact that many functions already accept gpuArray inputs and parallelise your code automatically.
• use functions like arrayfun or pagefun, which also accept gpuArray inputs and allow you to apply the same custom function to all the elements of the gpuArray.
• write a custom CUDA kernel and call mexcuda to use it within MATLAB.
If you do any of these things inside a parfor, each worker will use its GPU to do the computations.
symbolic variables inside parfor
I don't think there's anything wrong about defining a symbolic variable inside a parfor. See my answer to this question for how to do it safely...
gonzalo Mier 2019 年 6 月 20 日
thank you, that was really helpful :)
Andrea Picciau 2019 年 6 月 20 日
You're welcome!

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