There's no direct way to exclude the current point in a given window with the moving statistics functions. However, since you want a trailing maximum in this particular answer, it is fairly easy to get around. As Jan pointed out, a 20-point trailing maximum that excludes the current point can be computed as a 19-point trailing maximum with a 1-point shift. So, you should be able to just do:
movmax([-Inf x(1:(end-1))], [18 0]);
I believe this should be equivalent to what you want (although you'll have to decide what should happen for the first point, where you'd have a window only containing the current point).