Problem 55225. Simpson's Paradox - Calculate correlation coefficients for groups of data
Simpson's Paradox is a statistical phenomenon where groups of data can have a characteristic while the whole data set together has the opposite characteristic. In the example below, both groups have a negative correlation between x and y, but collectively there is a positive correlation.
Write a function that takes three vectors as input: x, y, and g. The vector g will contain only the values 1 and 2. The function should return three outputs. These outputs are the Pearson correlation coefficients for three different groupings of the data, which are: (1) for all x and y, (2) x and y corresponding to elements where g has the value 1, (3) x and y for which g is 2.
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