I had the same problem.
I removed the appdata like Andreas Goser suggested and also reinstalled the JRE, as suggested by Jonathan Currie.
What worked for me now, was to open Matlab with the -nojvm option enabled. e.g.
After that I could start Matlab normally.
Maybe one start with -nojvm is enough, without the need to remove the appdata or reinstall the JRE. #bestpractices