# Neural ODE for dynamic systems with input signals

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Bowei Li 2022 年 1 月 24 日
コメント済み: Ben 2024 年 1 月 15 日
Hi! Community!
Mathworks provided a nice example here for modeling dynamic systems through neural ODE.
Is it possible to consider input signals in training? That is, to define the differential equation to be:
where is the input signal.
However, dlode45 will not allow the ODE function to be with more than three inputs.
So is there any other possible approach to incorporate the input signal?
Thanks a lot!

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### 採用された回答

Ben 2022 年 1 月 25 日
Hi Bowei,
You should be able to create a new ODE function that has only three inputs as required. Let me show a few cases.
Case 1 -
In this case you can define . Assuming you have f as a function handle you can define g in code with:
g = @(t,x,theta) f(t,x,theta,e(t))
Then solve using g in dlode45.
Case 2 -
This is a special case of case 1:
g = @(t,x,theta) f(t,x,theta) + e(t)
Call dlode45 with g.
Case 3 - for
In this case you have an extra hyperparameter i which you just have to select a specific value for. For example let and . You could write this in code as:
e = @(t,i) cos(i*t);
f = @(t,x,A,i) A*x + e(t,i);
x0 = dlarray(randn());
tspan = [0,1];
A = dlarray(randn());
i = 3;
x = dlode45(@(t,x,A) f(t,x,A,i), tspan, x0, A, DataFormat="CB");
Note that in this case you can loop over the values you want for i.
Hope that helps,
Ben
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Shubham Baisthakur 2024 年 1 月 12 日
Hello Ben,
Would you please explain how to model ODEs with external input signals using the neuralODELayer in reference to the new functionalities introduced in the recent release (R2023a)?
Thanks,
Shubham
Ben 2024 年 1 月 15 日
Firstly neuralODELayer is only available from R2023b. If R2023a you could use a custom layer using dlode45.
To use neuralODELayer with an external input signal, you will need to be able to implement that external input signal in the dlnetwork that is passed to neuralODELayer. You create layer = neuralODELayer(odenet, tspan), if odenet has 1 input then this corresponds to integrating the ODE . If odenet has 2 inputs then it is . So if you're modelling an ODE of the form then you need implement withing the odenet.
As an example, here's how you could create .
x0 = dlarray(1,"CB");
t0 = dlarray(0,"CB");
sinLayer = functionLayer(@sin, Acceleratable=true);
hiddenSize = 10;
odenet = [
sinLayer
concatenationLayer(1,2)
fullyConnectedLayer(hiddenSize)
tanhLayer
fullyConnectedLayer(1)];
odenet = dlnetwork(odenet,t0,x0);
tspan = [0,0.1];
odeLayer = neuralODELayer(odenet,tspan);
odeLayer =
NeuralODELayer with properties: Name: '' TimeInterval: [0 0.1000] GradientMode: 'direct' RelativeTolerance: 1.0000e-03 AbsoluteTolerance: 1.0000e-06 Learnable Parameters Network: [1×1 dlnetwork] State Parameters No properties. Use properties method to see a list of all properties.
Here the odenet-s first input is t which becomes via the sinLayer. Then I concatenate with the second input to odenet, x to create , and pass that through standard neural network layers.
A more difficult case is that you don't know a functional form for , but only have samples . In this case, instead of sinLayer = functionLayer(@sin) you should use a layer that interpolates from the samples . One way to do this is with interp1. Here's some code demonstrating that, I'll use again just to demonstrate.
% create toy data
ti = dlarray(linspace(0,1,10));
ui = sin(ti); % in practice you aren't aware of the functional form of u(t).
interpLayer = functionLayer(@(t) dlarray(interp1(ti,ui,t),"CB"), Acceleratable=true);
Next you use interpLayer just like sinLayer above. Part of what this does is store the sample data ti, ui on the interpLayer (actually on the function_handle on that layer). A more flexible approach would be to implement a custom layer to perform this interpolation.
If you have multiple different external signals corresponding to different observations/batch elements, you may need a more intricate approach, since you will have to align the with the batch element inputs to odenet.

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### その他の回答 (1 件)

David Willingham 2022 年 1 月 24 日
Hi Bowei,
Thanks for the feedback on our neural ode example! For your request, can you elloborate on what type of signal e(t) might be and what use cases you're looking to apply neural ode's to?
David
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Bowei Li 2022 年 1 月 25 日

Thanks David!
I was thinking about training neural ode for predicting states of dynamic systems given some arbitrary input signals, such as:
where is the system state vector, a function of time t; the input signal is also a function of time t.
For example, can be like or or a random process .
The example here corresponding to the case of and training a neural ode for a set of initial conditions.
Is it possible to train a neural ode for a fixed initial condition, but for a set of input signals .

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