Documentation

## m, d, or a Coefficient for `specifyCoefficients`

### Coefficients m, d, or a

This section describes how to write the m, d, or a coefficients in the system of equations

`$m\frac{{\partial }^{2}u}{\partial {t}^{2}}+d\frac{\partial u}{\partial t}-\nabla ·\left(c\otimes \nabla u\right)+au=f$`

or in the eigenvalue system

`$\begin{array}{l}-\nabla ·\left(c\otimes \nabla u\right)+au=\lambda du\\ \text{or}\\ -\nabla ·\left(c\otimes \nabla u\right)+au={\lambda }^{2}mu\end{array}$`

The topic applies to the recommended workflow for including coefficients in your model using `specifyCoefficients`.

If there are N equations in the system, then these coefficients represent N-by-N matrices.

For constant (numeric) coefficient matrices, represent each coefficient using a column vector with N2 components. This column vector represents, for example, `m(:)`.

For nonconstant coefficient matrices, see Nonconstant m, d, or a.

### Note

The `d` coefficient takes a special matrix form when `m` is nonzero. See d Coefficient When m is Nonzero.

### Short m, d, or a vectors

Sometimes, your m, d, or a matrices are diagonal or symmetric. In these cases, you can represent m, d, or a using a smaller vector than one with N2 components. The following sections give the possibilities.

#### Scalar m, d, or a

The software interprets a scalar m, d, or a as a diagonal matrix.

`$\left(\begin{array}{cccc}a& 0& \cdots & 0\\ 0& a& \cdots & 0\\ ⋮& ⋮& \ddots & ⋮\\ 0& 0& \cdots & a\end{array}\right)$`

#### N-Element Column Vector m, d, or a

The software interprets an N-element column vector m, d, or a as a diagonal matrix.

`$\left(\begin{array}{cccc}d\left(1\right)& 0& \cdots & 0\\ 0& d\left(2\right)& \cdots & 0\\ ⋮& ⋮& \ddots & ⋮\\ 0& 0& \cdots & d\left(N\right)\end{array}\right)$`

#### N(N+1)/2-Element Column Vector m, d, or a

The software interprets an N(N+1)/2-element column vector m, d, or a as a symmetric matrix. In the following diagram, • means the entry is symmetric.

`$\left(\begin{array}{ccccc}a\left(1\right)& a\left(2\right)& a\left(4\right)& \cdots & a\left(N\left(N-1\right)/2\right)\\ •& a\left(3\right)& a\left(5\right)& \cdots & a\left(N\left(N-1\right)/2+1\right)\\ •& •& a\left(6\right)& \cdots & a\left(N\left(N-1\right)/2+2\right)\\ ⋮& ⋮& ⋮& \ddots & ⋮\\ •& •& •& \cdots & a\left(N\left(N+1\right)/2\right)\end{array}\right)$`

Coefficient a(i,j) is in row (j(j–1)/2+i) of the vector `a`.

#### N2-Element Column Vector m, d, or a

The software interprets an N2-element column vector m, d, or a as a matrix.

`$\left(\begin{array}{cccc}d\left(1\right)& d\left(N+1\right)& \cdots & d\left({N}^{2}-N+1\right)\\ d\left(2\right)& d\left(N+2\right)& \cdots & d\left({N}^{2}-N+2\right)\\ ⋮& ⋮& \ddots & ⋮\\ d\left(N\right)& d\left(2N\right)& \cdots & d\left({N}^{2}\right)\end{array}\right)$`

Coefficient a(i,j) is in row (N(j–1)+i) of the vector `a`.

### Note

If both m and d are nonzero, then d must be a constant scalar or vector, not a function.

If any of the m, d, or a coefficients is not constant, represent it as a function of the form

`dcoeffunction(location,state)`

`solvepde` or `solvepdeeig` pass the `location` and `state` structures to `dcoeffunction`. The function must return a matrix of size N1-by-Nr, where:

• N1 is the length of the vector representing the coefficient. There are several possible values of N1, detailed in Short m, d, or a vectors. 1 ≤ N1 ≤ N2.

• Nr is the number of points in the location that the solver passes. Nr is equal to the length of the `location.x` or any other `location` field. The function should evaluate m, d, or a at these points.

Pass the coefficient to `specifyCoefficients` as a function handle, such as

`specifyCoefficients(model,'d',@dcoeffunction,...)`
• `location` is a structure with these fields:

• `location.x`

• `location.y`

• `location.z`

• `location.subdomain`

The fields `x`, `y`, and `z` represent the x-, y-, and z- coordinates of points for which your function calculates coefficient values. The `subdomain` field represents the subdomain numbers, which currently apply only to 2-D models. The location fields are row vectors.

• `state` is a structure with these fields:

• `state.u`

• `state.ux`

• `state.uy`

• `state.uz`

• `state.time`

The `state.u` field represents the current value of the solution u. The `state.ux`, `state.uy`, and `state.uz` fields are estimates of the solution’s partial derivatives (∂u/∂x, ∂u/∂y, and ∂u/∂z) at the corresponding points of the location structure. The solution and gradient estimates are N-by-Nr matrices. The `state.time` field is a scalar representing time for time-dependent models.

For example, suppose N = 3, and you have 2-D geometry. Suppose your `d` matrix is of the form

`$d=\left[\begin{array}{ccc}1& {s}_{1}\left(x,y\right)& \sqrt{{x}^{2}+{y}^{2}}\\ {s}_{1}\left(x,y\right)& 4& -1\\ \sqrt{{x}^{2}+{y}^{2}}& -1& 9\end{array}\right]$`

where s1(x,y) is 5 in subdomain 1, and is 10 in subdomain 2.

This `d` is a symmetric matrix. So it is natural to represent `d` as a N(N+1)/2-Element Column Vector m, d, or a:

`$\left(\begin{array}{ccccc}a\left(1\right)& a\left(2\right)& a\left(4\right)& \cdots & a\left(N\left(N-1\right)/2\right)\\ •& a\left(3\right)& a\left(5\right)& \cdots & a\left(N\left(N-1\right)/2+1\right)\\ •& •& a\left(6\right)& \cdots & a\left(N\left(N-1\right)/2+2\right)\\ ⋮& ⋮& ⋮& \ddots & ⋮\\ •& •& •& \cdots & a\left(N\left(N+1\right)/2\right)\end{array}\right)$`

For that form, the following function is appropriate.

```function dmatrix = dcoeffunction(location,state) n1 = 6; nr = numel(location.x); dmatrix = zeros(n1,nr); dmatrix(1,:) = ones(1,nr); dmatrix(2,:) = 5*location.subdomain; dmatrix(3,:) = 4*ones(1,nr); dmatrix(4,:) = sqrt(location.x.^2 + location.y.^2); dmatrix(5,:) = -ones(1,nr); dmatrix(6,:) = 9*ones(1,nr);```

To include this function as your `d` coefficient, pass the function handle `@dcoeffunction`:

`specifyCoefficients(model,'d',@dcoeffunction,...`

## Related Topics

##### Support 