The table to which Stephen Cobeldick linked is from 2013, so some of the rows on it are no longer applicable. In fact the only one that still appears at first glance to be relevant is the last row. [The last 32-bit release of MATLAB was release R2015b.]
There are techniques you can use to process "Big Data" (data that doesn't fit into available memory.) See the tools described on this documentation page. You could also write your code to run on a cluster of machines with the parallel computing products.