Since it will be periodic, just add 360 if the value is less than 0. This will suffice to correct the negative angles.
winddir = winddir + (winddir < 0)*360;
You can use atan2d if you prefer to work in degrees, but it will map to the same range, [-180,180], so you will still need to correct for the negative angles.
If you wanted a simple expression that works in one line of code, this should do:
winddir = atan2d(Vi,Ui) + 360*(Vi<0);