Frequency Offset Calibration Receiver Using Analog Devices AD9361/AD9364
This example shows how to use the Xilinx® Zynq-Based Radio Support Package with MATLAB® to determine the frequency offset between SDR devices using Analog Devices™ AD9361 and AD9364. The example comprises of two complementary scripts: one for the transmitter and another for the receiver.
To transmit a 10 kHz sine wave, run the Frequency Offset Calibration Transmitter Using Analog Devices AD9361/AD9364 example by typing its script name in the MATLAB command window:
To receive the signal and to calculate the frequency offset, run this example by typing its script name in the MATLAB command window:
Refer to the Guided Host-Radio Hardware Setup documentation for details on configuring your host computer to work with the Support Package for Xilinx® Zynq-Based Radio.
This example uses a matched pair of scripts to determine the frequency offset between two SDR devices:
The transmit script is Frequency Offset Calibration Transmitter Using Analog Devices AD9361 and AD9364
The receive script is Frequency Offset Calibration Receiver Using Analog Devices AD9361 and AD9364
The transmitter sends a 10 kHz tone. The receiver detects the transmitted tone using an FFT-based detection method. The offset between the transmitted 10 kHz tone and the received tone can then be calculated and used to compensate for the offset at the receiver. The pair of scripts provides the following information:
A quantitative value of the frequency offset
A graphical view of the spur-free dynamic range of the receiver
A graphical view of the qualitative SNR level of the received signal
Before running the example, make sure you have performed the following steps:
1. Configure your host computer to work with the Support Package for Xilinx® Zynq-Based Radio. See Guided Host-Radio Hardware Setup for help.
Some additional steps may be required if you want to run two radios from a single host computer. See Setup for Two Radios Connecting to One Host for help.
2. Make sure that you have both the transmitter script Frequency Offset Calibration Transmitter Using Analog Devices AD9361 and AD9364 and the receiver script Frequency Offset Calibration Receiver Using Analog Devices AD9361 and AD9364 open, with each configured to run on its own SDR hardware in its own instance of MATLAB.
3. You can use this example with an AD936x or an FMCOMMS5 radio hardware. By default, the example is configured to run with AD936x. To configure the example for FMCOMMS5, you must use the comm.SDRRxFMCOMMS5 object instead of the comm.SDRRxAD936x object. To update the example for FMCOMMS5, follow the instructions in the inline comments.
Running the Example
Configure the example to run on hardware.
prmFreqCalibRx.SDRDeviceName = 'AD936x'; % To update the example for FMCOMMS5, set |prmFreqCalibRx.SDRDeviceName| to % |'FMCOMMS5'|.
Make sure that the transmitter is sending the 10 kHz tone, and then start the receiver script. See Frequency Offset Calibration Transmitter Using Analog Devices AD9361/AD9364 for help with the transmitter.
The calculated frequency offset is displayed in the MATLAB command window. A spectrum analyzer object is used to visualize the spectrum of the received signal. A sample of a received spectrum is shown below.
In this case, the frequency with the maximum received signal power is at about 2.86kHz. Since the transmitter is sending a tone at 10 kHz, this means the frequency offset is about 7.14kHz. The spurious free dynamic range of the signal is about 44.5 dB.
To compensate for a transmitter/receiver frequency offset, set the prmFreqCalibRx.OffsetCompensation variable to the value displayed in the command window. This value is added to the Center frequency of the SDR Receiver object. Be sure to use the sign of the offset in your addition. Rerun the receiver with the applied frequency offset compensation. The calculated offset frequency displayed should now be close to zero, and the peak in the spectrum should be close to 10 kHz.
It is important to note that the frequency offset value is only valid for the center frequency used to run the calibration.
Receiver Design: System Architecture
The code below sets up the parameters used to control the receiver.
% The approximate length of time the receiver runs for in seconds prmFreqCalibRx.RunTime = 10; % Set the offset value to compensate by prmFreqCalibRx.OffsetCompensation = 0; % SDR Receiver parameters prmFreqCalibRx.RadioIP = '192.168.3.2'; prmFreqCalibRx.RadioOutputDataType = 'double'; prmFreqCalibRx.RadioSamplesPerFrame = 4096; prmFreqCalibRx.RadioChannelMapping = 1; prmFreqCalibRx.DesiredRadioCenterFrequency = 2.4e9; prmFreqCalibRx.RadioBasebandSampleRate = 520.841e3; prmFreqCalibRx.RadioCenterFrequency = ... prmFreqCalibRx.DesiredRadioCenterFrequency + ... prmFreqCalibRx.OffsetCompensation; prmFreqCalibRx.RadioGainControlMode = 'AGC Fast Attack'; % Expected sine wave parameters prmFreqCalibRx.RxSineFrequency = 10e3; % in Hertz prmFreqCalibRx.Fs = prmFreqCalibRx.RadioBasebandSampleRate; % FFT length for calculating the frequency offset prmFreqCalibRx.FocFFTSize = 4096;
Using the parameters above, three System objects are created:
Using these parameters, generate and send a sine wave to the SDR hardware for upsampling and transmission. Then visualize the spectrum of the transmitted baseband signal.
The prmFreqCalibRx.FocFFTSize variable sets the size of the FFT used to calculate the frequency offset. The default value of 4096 means that the frequency offset calculated is limited to a resolution of 48 Hz.
sdrReceiver = sdrrx( prmFreqCalibRx.SDRDeviceName,... 'IPAddress', prmFreqCalibRx.RadioIP, ... 'CenterFrequency', prmFreqCalibRx.RadioCenterFrequency, ... 'GainSource', prmFreqCalibRx.RadioGainControlMode, ... 'SamplesPerFrame', prmFreqCalibRx.RadioSamplesPerFrame, ... 'BasebandSampleRate', prmFreqCalibRx.RadioBasebandSampleRate, ... 'OutputDataType', prmFreqCalibRx.RadioOutputDataType, ... 'ChannelMapping', prmFreqCalibRx.RadioChannelMapping, ... 'ShowAdvancedProperties', true, ... 'BypassUserLogic', true); coarseFrequencyOffset = sdrzCoarseFrequencyOffset(... 'FFTSize', prmFreqCalibRx.FocFFTSize ,... 'SampleRate', prmFreqCalibRx.Fs); spectrumScope = spectrumAnalyzer(... 'SpectrumType', 'Power',... 'FrequencySpan', 'Full', ... 'FrequencyResolutionMethod', 'RBW', ... 'RBWSource', 'Property', ... 'RBW', 48, ... 'SampleRate', prmFreqCalibRx.Fs, ... 'YLimits', [-120, 20],... 'SpectralAverages', 10);
Reception and Baseband Signal Processing
The receiver is then run for the target amount of time.
prmFreqCalibRx.currentTime = 0; prmFreqCalibRx.timePerStep = (1 / prmFreqCalibRx.Fs) * ... prmFreqCalibRx.RadioSamplesPerFrame; valid = false; while prmFreqCalibRx.currentTime < prmFreqCalibRx.RunTime % Keep calling the Receiver until there is data available while ~valid [rxSig, valid] = sdrReceiver(); end % Display received frequency spectrum. spectrumScope(rxSig); % Compute the frequency offset. Since the SDRCoarseFrequencyOffset % object returns the frequency of the peak power, we need to compensate % for the fact we are transmitting at prmFreqCalibRx.RxSineFrequency. % The value 'offset' represents the frequency shift that needs to be % applied to the Center Frequency. offset = coarseFrequencyOffset(rxSig) + prmFreqCalibRx.RxSineFrequency; % Print the frequency offset compensation value in MATLAB command % window. compensationValue = -offset %#ok<NOPTS> prmFreqCalibRx.currentTime = prmFreqCalibRx.currentTime + ... prmFreqCalibRx.timePerStep; % reset valid so we can wait for new data valid = false; end % Release all system objects release(sdrReceiver); release(coarseFrequencyOffset); release(spectrumScope); clear sdrReceiver coarseFrequencyOffset prmFreqCalibRx
This example describes the MATLAB implementation of a receiver for performing frequency offset calibration between two SDR devices using the Analog Devices AD9361 and AD9364. The matched transmitter is Frequency Offset Calibration Transmitter Using Analog Devices AD9361/AD9364.
You can also view a Simulink® implementation of these examples in Frequency Offset Calibration Using Analog Devices AD9361/AD9364.
Troubleshooting the Example
If the received signal is very weak, you can try increasing the receiver gain by changing the prmFreqCalibRx.RadioGain variable with the manual gain control mode or by changing the prmFreqCalibRx.RadioGainControlMode to 'AGC Fast Attack' or 'AGC Slow Attack'.
If you run the example as described but fail to see a signal like the one shown (e.g. you only receive noise or the spectrum display is never shown), see Common Problems and Fixes.
This example uses the following helper files:
sdrzCoarseFrequencyOffset.m: a system object for calculating the frequency offset.