Many functions in MATLAB® can take the elements of an existing array and put them in a different shape or sequence. This can be helpful for preprocessing your data for subsequent computations or analyzing the data.

The `reshape`

function changes the size and shape of an array. For example, reshape a 3-by-4 matrix to a 2-by-6 matrix.

A = [1 4 7 10; 2 5 8 11; 3 6 9 12]

`A = `*3×4*
1 4 7 10
2 5 8 11
3 6 9 12

B = reshape(A,2,6)

`B = `*2×6*
1 3 5 7 9 11
2 4 6 8 10 12

As long as the number of elements in each shape are the same, you can reshape them into an array with any number of dimensions. Using the elements from `A`

, create a 2-by-2-by-3 multidimensional array.

C = reshape(A,2,2,3)

C = C(:,:,1) = 1 3 2 4 C(:,:,2) = 5 7 6 8 C(:,:,3) = 9 11 10 12

A common task in linear algebra is to work with the transpose of a matrix, which turns the rows into columns and the columns into rows. To do this, use the `transpose`

function or the `.'`

operator.

Create a 3-by-3 matrix and compute its transpose.

A = magic(3)

`A = `*3×3*
8 1 6
3 5 7
4 9 2

B = A.'

`B = `*3×3*
8 3 4
1 5 9
6 7 2

A similar operator `'`

computes the conjugate transpose for complex matrices. This operation computes the complex conjugate of each element and transposes it. Create a 2-by-2 complex matrix and compute its conjugate transpose.

A = [1+i 1-i; -i i]

`A = `*2×2 complex*
1.0000 + 1.0000i 1.0000 - 1.0000i
0.0000 - 1.0000i 0.0000 + 1.0000i

B = A'

`B = `*2×2 complex*
1.0000 - 1.0000i 0.0000 + 1.0000i
1.0000 + 1.0000i 0.0000 - 1.0000i

`flipud`

flips the rows of a matrix in an up-to-down direction, and `fliplr`

flips the columns in a left-to-right direction.

A = [1 2; 3 4]

`A = `*2×2*
1 2
3 4

B = flipud(A)

`B = `*2×2*
3 4
1 2

C = fliplr(A)

`C = `*2×2*
2 1
4 3

You can shift elements of an array by a certain number of positions using the `circshift`

function. For example, create a 3-by-4 matrix and shift its columns to the right by 2. The second argument `[0 2]`

tells `circshift`

to shift the rows 0 places and shift the columns 2 places to the right.

A = [1 2 3 4; 5 6 7 8; 9 10 11 12]

`A = `*3×4*
1 2 3 4
5 6 7 8
9 10 11 12

B = circshift(A,[0 2])

`B = `*3×4*
3 4 1 2
7 8 5 6
11 12 9 10

To shift the rows of `A`

up by 1 and keep the columns in place, specify the second argument as `[-1 0]`

.

C = circshift(A,[-1 0])

`C = `*3×4*
5 6 7 8
9 10 11 12
1 2 3 4

The `rot90`

function can rotate a matrix counterclockwise by 90 degrees.

A = [1 2; 3 4]

`A = `*2×2*
1 2
3 4

B = rot90(A)

`B = `*2×2*
2 4
1 3

If you rotate 3 more times by using the second argument to specify the number of rotations, you end up with the original matrix `A`

.

C = rot90(B,3)

`C = `*2×2*
1 2
3 4

Sorting the data in an array is also a valuable tool, and MATLAB offers a number of approaches. For example, the `sort`

function sorts the elements of each row or column of a matrix separately in ascending or descending order. Create a matrix `A`

and sort each column of `A`

in ascending order.

A = magic(4)

`A = `*4×4*
16 2 3 13
5 11 10 8
9 7 6 12
4 14 15 1

B = sort(A)

`B = `*4×4*
4 2 3 1
5 7 6 8
9 11 10 12
16 14 15 13

Sort each row in descending order. The second argument value `2`

specifies that you want to sort row-wise.

`C = sort(A,2,'descend')`

`C = `*4×4*
16 13 3 2
11 10 8 5
12 9 7 6
15 14 4 1

To sort entire rows or columns relative to each other, use the `sortrows`

function. For example, sort the rows of `A`

in ascending order according to the elements in the first column. The positions of the rows change, but the order of the elements in each row are preserved.

D = sortrows(A)

`D = `*4×4*
4 14 15 1
5 11 10 8
9 7 6 12
16 2 3 13